**Contents**

1 Overview
2 View and Select Data 3 Change Descriptions 4 Scatter Plot Graph 5 Label Axes 6 Display Graph 7 Change Scale 8 Showing Data 9 Adding Years 10 Change Scale Resources |

Science

Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

12ASI1.3 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.

Understandings about scientific inquiry

12ASI2.3 Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data. New techniques and tools provide new evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather data, thereby contributing to the advance of science. The accuracy and precision of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration, depends on the technology used.

12ASI2.4 Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry. Mathematical tools and models guide and improve the posing of questions, gathering data, constructing explanations and communicating results

Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students:

B. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.

6.

A. understand and use technology systems.

- Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems

- Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates

- Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates

- Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems

- Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates

- Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates

A student should understand and be able to apply the processes and applications of scientific inquiry.

A student who meets the content standard should:

3) develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the environment contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and local applications provide opportunity for understanding scientific concepts and global issues.

3) develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the environment contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and local applications provide opportunity for understanding scientific concepts and global issues.

D) Concepts of Earth Science

A student should understand and be able to apply the concepts, processes, theories, models, evidence, and systems of earth and space sciences.

A student who meets the content standard should:

2) develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape the structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth;

2) develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape the structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth;

A student who meets the content standard should:

4) use graphic tools and technologies to depict and interpret the worldâ€™s human and physical systems;

4) use graphic tools and technologies to depict and interpret the worldâ€™s human and physical systems;

B) A student should be able to utilize, analyze, and explain information about the human and physical features of places and regions.

A student who meets the content standard should:

8) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time.

8) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time.

F) A student should be able to use geography to understand the world by interpreting the past, knowing the present, and preparing for the future.

A student who meets the content standard should:

2) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time;

2) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time;

A student who meets the content standard should:

2) use technological tools for learning, communications, and productivity;

2) use technological tools for learning, communications, and productivity;

C) A student should be able to use technology to explore ideas, solve problems, and derive meaning.

A student who meets the content standard should:

1) use technology to observe, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions;

1) use technology to observe, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions;

A student who meets the content standard should:

2) select and use appropriate systems, units, and tools of measurement, including estimation;

3) perform basic arithmetic functions, make reasoned estimates, and select and use appropriate methods or tools for computation or estimation including mental arithmetic, paper and pencil, a calculator, and a computer;

5) construct, draw, measure, transform, compare, visualize, classify, and analyze the relationships among geometric figures; and

6) collect, organize, analyze, interpret, represent, and formulate questions about data and make reasonable and useful predictions

2) select and use appropriate systems, units, and tools of measurement, including estimation;

3) perform basic arithmetic functions, make reasoned estimates, and select and use appropriate methods or tools for computation or estimation including mental arithmetic, paper and pencil, a calculator, and a computer;

5) construct, draw, measure, transform, compare, visualize, classify, and analyze the relationships among geometric figures; and

6) collect, organize, analyze, interpret, represent, and formulate questions about data and make reasonable and useful predictions

B) A student should understand and be able to select and use a variety of problem solving strategies.

A student who meets the content standard should:

1) use computational methods and appropriate technology as problem-solving tools;

2) use problem solving to investigate and understand mathematical content;

1) use computational methods and appropriate technology as problem-solving tools;

2) use problem solving to investigate and understand mathematical content;

http://nsidc.org/noaa/search/indicators/soil_index.html

"Kenji Yoshikawa installs thermistors in a borehole."

**The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)** has developed curriculum about permafrost and frozen ground.

“All About Frozen Ground.”

**Global Terrestrial Network** for Permafrost has global temperature and borehole data and maps.

http://www.gtnp.org/index_e.html